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Test Cross

6 April, 2016 - 17:26

Beyond predicting the offspring of a cross between known homozygous or heterozygous parents, Mendel also developed a way to determine whether an organism that expressed a dominant trait was a heterozygote or a homozygote. Called the test cross, this technique is still used by plant and animal breeders. In a test cross, the dominant-expressing organism is crossed with an organism that is homozygous recessive for the same characteristic. If the dominant-expressing organism is a homozygote, then all F1 offspring will be heterozygotes expressing the dominant trait (Figure 8.8). Alternatively, if the dominant-expressing organism is a heterozygote, the F1 offspring will exhibit a 1:1 ratio of heterozygotes and recessive homozygotes (Figure 8.8). The test cross further validates Mendel’s postulate that pairs of unit factors segregate equally.

Figure 8.8
A test cross can be performed to determine whether an organism expressing a dominant trait is a homozygote or a heterozygote. 

Art Connection

Figure 8.9
This Punnett square shows the cross between plants with yellow seeds and green seeds. The cross between the true-breeding P plants produces F1 heterozygotes that can be self-fertilized. The self-cross of the F1 generation can be analyzed with a Punnett square to predict the genotypes of the F2 generation. Given an inheritance pattern of dominant–recessive, the genotypic and phenotypic ratios can then be determined.

In pea plants, round peas (R) are dominant to wrinkled peas (r). You do a test cross between a pea plant with wrinkled peas (genotype rr) and a plant of unknown genotype that has round peas. You end up with three plants, all which have round peas. From this data, can you tell if the parent plant is homozygous dominant or heterozygous?