Collaboration is described in the literature as a key feature of professional learning communities, (Hipp, Hufman, Pankake, & Olivier, 2008; Levine & Marcus, 2007). Hord (1997) defines a professional learning community in a school as "the professional staff learning together to direct their effort toward improved student learning," (p. 3). Five common features of this type of structure are shared values, focus on student learning, collaboration, deprivatized practice, and reflective dialogue (Louis & Marks, 1998). In an era of accountability for increased student achievement, the tasks of a professional learning community within schools are clear: identify what students should know, determine how learning will be measured, and respond to students who do not demonstrate learning (Moore, 2009b).
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