Greater productive efficiency is achieved through specialization of resources in their most productive use. Division of labor allows more intensive use of skills and greater output with the use of capital. This mass production results in excess production beyond the immediate needs of the producers: such excess production must be traded. Such trading requires a market economy and the use of money.
Assembly lines, such as the one used to produce the Ford model T show how production can be increased and the cost can be reduced if it can be subdivided into simple tasks which require a minimum of skills for that task alone.