There are many different accounting standards in use in the world, ranging from full-accrual based accounting standards to cash- and tax-basis accounting standards. Each are known as Generally Accepted Accountancy Principles, or GAAP. Some significant GAAPs are as follows:
- IFRS - International Financial Reporting Standards - used for European Union listed entities, many other EU entities, Australian companies and others.
- US GAAP - used by US companies.
- UK GAAP - used by UK and Irish companies that have not adopted IFRS.
- Canadian PE GAAP - private enterprises in Canada have the option to use either IFRS or PE GAAP. Canadian public companies must use IFRS.
- Indian GAAP - used by Indian companies.
In commercial and non-profit accounting in the United State of America, the standard setter is the Financial Accounting Standards Board. For governmental accounting, GAAP is determined by the Governmental Accounting Standards Board. Both of these entities are sections of the Financial Accounting Foundation.
The use of GAAP for publicly held business entities in the United States is mandated by the Securities and Exchange Commission, a federal agency. Other business entities may find that other accounting standards may meet the needs of the users and therefore not adopt GAAP due to the extra costs required.
Accounting Standards in India are developed by Accounting Standards Board and these are issued by The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India Click here to view all Accounting Standards Issued by ICAI
In Bangladesh, The Institute of Chartered Accountants of Bangladesh adopt compatible IAS and followed them by the company as per Companies Act 1994.
There is currently a movement around the world to harmonise all accounting standards into one set of IFRSs. This is on ongoing project, primarily being undertaken by the International Accounting Standards Board. This project is being coordinated with the standard setting bodies in the United States.