Marketing is an individualized and highly creative process. Despite the availability of high-powered computers and sophisticated software capable of analyzing massive amounts of data, marketing is more of an art rather than a science. Each business must customize its marketing efforts in response to its environment and the exchange process. Consequently, no two marketing strategies are exactly the same.
This requirement of marketing to play slightly different roles, depending upon some set of situational criteria, has in turn provided us with a division of marketing into a number of different categories. This is not to imply, however, that there are not general marketing principles that work in most businesses—there are. There is a right and wrong way to design a package. There are certain advertising strategies that tend to work more often than others. Rather, we are saying that because of certain factors, a business’s approach toward marketing and the ensuing strategy will require some modification from the basic plan.
Shown in Table 1.1 are the most common types of marketing categories. Since these various types of marketing will be discussed throughout this text, a brief introduction is provided at this point.
|Macromarketing||The devaluation of the yen||Emphasis of study|
|Micromarketing||A pricing strategy for Wal-Mart||Perspective, receiver of consequences|
|Goods Marketing||Nabisco International||Tangibility, standardization, storage, production, involvement|
|Service marketing||Chase Manhattan Bank|
|For-profit marketing||Otis Elevator||Concerns for profits|
|Nonprofit marketing||New York Museum of Art||Tax status|
|Mass marketing||Sony||Nature of contact information, process for purchasing and delivery|
|Direct marketing||Time Magazine|
|Local marketing||Imperial Garden Restaurant||Proximity of customers, geographic area, extent of distribution, network, marketing, variation commitment to country|
|Regional marketing||Olympia Brewery|
|National marketing||American Red Cross|
|International marketing||Ford Motor Company|
|Consumer goods marketing||Kraft Foods||Nature of consumer|
|Business-to-business marketing||IBM||Product function|