If a marketing firm is to adopt the customer-centered orientation discussed earlier, it must also extend this philosophy to the other functions/institutions with which it must interact. These functions, and the institutions that perform the functions can be categorized as non-marketing institutions and marketing institutions.
Nonmarketing institutions can exist within the organization or outside the organization. The former inciude accounting, financial planning, human resources, engineering, manufacturing, research and development, and so on. Marketing must be familiar with the capabilities of each of these functions and plan accordingly. Establishing and maintaining rapport with leaders in these other functional areas is a challenge for every marketer. Non-marketing institutions outside the firm facilitated the marketing process by providing expertise in areas not directly related to marketing. Examples include financial institutions that lend marketers necessary funds; regulatory institutions that pass laws to allow marketers to perform an activity; and the press, which tells the public about the activities of the marketer.