When channel members on different levels are owned and operated by one organization, a corporate vertical marketing system is said to exist. Such integration can be forward or backward. A manufacturer who owns the various intermediaries in its channel network has engaged in forward integration. A retailer who takes over the wholesaling and manufacturing tasks is backward integrating. This process can entail either the organization's purchasing the institutions, or establishing its own facilities. Although partial forward or backward integration is most common, total integration is becoming more popular. Manufacturers who have recently integrated through to the retail level are Dannon Yogurt, Blue Bell Ice Cream, and Pepperidge Farms. Sears and Safeway stores are two retailers that have successfully integrated backward. American Hospital Supply Corporation is an example of a wholesaler that has integrated both backward and forward.
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Home » Core Concepts of Marketing » CHANNEL CONCEPTS: DISTRIBUTING THE PRODUCT » ORGANIZING THE CHANNEL » Vertical Marketing Systems
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