- Everything which exists, exists either in itself or in something else.
- That which cannot be conceived through anything else must be conceived through itself.
- From a given definite cause an effect necessarily follows; and, on the other hand, if no definite cause be granted, it is impossible that an effect can follow.
- The knowledge of an effect depends on and involves the knowledge of a cause.
- Things which have nothing in common cannot be understood, the one by means of the other; the conception of one does not involve the conception of the other.
- A true idea must correspond with its ideate or object.
- If a thing can be conceived as non—existing, its essence does not involve existence.
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Home » Modern Philosophy » Baruch Spinoza (1632–1677) » Spinoza’s Ethics, Part One: Concerning God (1677)
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