There are two sides to each of the relationships when it comes to participation. Each side can have two options for participation. It is either 0 (zero), 1 (one), or many. The outer most symbol represents the con nectivity. i.e. one to many would be represented by
The inner most symbols represent the cardinality which indicates the minimum number of instances in the corresponding entity. i.e. on the right hand side it is read as: minimum 1 maximum many. On the left hand side it’s read as minimum 1 and maximum 1. See below for more examples.