Natural languages are the languages people speak, such as English, Spanish, and French. They were not designed by people (although people try to impose some order on them); they evolved naturally.
Formal languages are languages that are designed by people for speciﬁc applications. For example, the notation that mathematicians use is a formal language that is particularly good at denoting relationships among numbers and symbols. Chemists use a formal language to represent the chemical structure of molecules. And most importantly:
Programming languages are formal languages that have been designed toexpress computations.
Formal languages tend to have strict rules about syntax. For example, 3 + 3 = 6 is a syntactically correct mathematical statement, but 3+= 3$6 is not. H2O is a syntactically correct chemical formula, but 2Zz is not.
Syntax rules come in two ﬂavors, pertaining to tokens and structure. Tokens are the basic elements of the language, such as words, numbers, and chemical elements. One of the problems with 3+= 3$6 is that $ is not a legal token in mathematics (at least as far as I know). Similarly, 2Zz is not legal because there is no element with the abbreviation Zz.
The second type of syntax rule pertains to the structure of a statement; that is, the way the tokens are arranged. The statement 3+= 3 is illegal because even though + and = are legal tokens, you can’t have one right after the other. Similarly, in a chemical formula the subscript comes after the element name, not before.
Exercise 1.1.Write a well-structured English sentence with invalid tokens in it. Then write another sentence with all valid tokens but with invalid structure.
When you read a sentence in English or a statement in a formal language, you have to ﬁgure out what the structure of the sentence is (although in a natural language you do this subconsciously). This process is called parsing.
For example, when you hear the sentence, “The penny dropped,” you understand that “the penny” is the subject and “dropped” is the predicate. Once you have parsed a sentence, you can ﬁgure out what it means, or the semantics of the sentence. Assuming that you know what a penny is and what it means to drop, you will understand the general implication of this sentence.
Although formal and natural languages have many features in common—tokens, structure, syntax, and semantics—there are some differences:
ambiguity: Natural languages are full of ambiguity, which people deal with by using contextual clues and other information. Formal languages are designed to be nearly or completely unambiguous, which means that any statement has exactly one meaning, regardless of context.
redundancy: In order to make up for ambiguity and reduce misunderstandings, natural languages employ lots of redundancy. As a result, they are often verbose. Formal languages are less redundant and more concise.
literalness: Natural languages are full of idiom and metaphor. If I say, “The penny dropped,” there is probably no penny and nothing dropping (this idiom means that someone realized something after a period of confusion). Formal languages mean exactly what they say.
People who grow up speaking a natural language—everyone—often have a hard time adjusting to formal languages. In some ways, the difference between formal and natural language is like the difference between poetry and prose, but more so:
Poetry: Words are used for their sounds as well as for their meaning, and the whole poem together creates an effect or emotional response. Ambiguity is not only common but often deliberate.
Prose: The literal meaning of words is more important, and the structure contributes more meaning. Prose is more amenable to analysis than poetry but still often ambiguous.
Programs: The meaning of a computer program is unambiguous and literal, and can be understood entirely by analysis of the tokens and structure.
Here are some suggestions for reading programs (and other formal languages). First, remember that formal languages are much more dense than natural languages, so it takes longer to read them. Also, the structure is very important, so it is usually not a good idea to read from top to bottom, left to right. Instead, learn to parse the program in your head, identifying the tokens and interpreting the structure. Finally, the details matter. Small er rors in spelling and punctuation, which you can get away with in natural languages, can make a big difference in a formal language.