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Importing with from

1 September, 2015 - 15:37

Python provides two ways to import modules; we have already seen one:

>>> import math>>> print math<module 'math' (built-in)>>>> print math.pi3.14159265359

If you import math, you get a module object named math. The module object contains constants like pi and functions like sin and exp.

But if you try to access pi directly, you get an error.

>>> print piTraceback (most recent call last):File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>NameError: name 'pi' is not defined

As an alternative, you can import an object from a module like this:

>>> from math import pi

Now you can access pi directly, without dot notation.

>>> print pi3.14159265359

Or you can use the star operator to import everything from the module:

>>> from math import *>>> cos(pi)-1.0

The advantage of importing everything from the math module is that your code can be more concise. The disadvantage is that there might be conflicts between names defined in different modules, or between a name from a module and one of your variables.