encode: To represent one set of values using another set of values by constructing a mapping between them.
class attribute: An attribute associated with a class object. Class attributes are defined inside a class definition but outside any method.
instance attribute: An attribute associated with an instance of a class.
veneer: A method or function that provides a different interface to another function without doing much computation.
inheritance: The ability to define a new class that is a modified version of a previously defined class.
parent class: The class from which a child class inherits.
child class: A new class created by inheriting from an existing class; also called a “subclass.”
IS-A relationship: The relationship between a child class and its parent class.
HAS-A relationship: The relationship between two classes where instances of one class contain references to instances of the other.
class diagram: A diagram that shows the classes in a program and the relationships between them.
multiplicity: A notation in a class diagram that shows, for a HAS-A relationship, how many references there are to instances of another class.