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23 December, 2015 - 12:15
  1. With degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (brain cells), heart disease (heart muscles), and diabetes (pancreatic cells), cells have been irreversibly lost and cannot be self regenerated. The capability of long term self renewal in stem cells mark the importance of this area in treating patients.
  1. Adult stem cells: bone marrow transplants and skin grafting. Embryonic stem cells: repopulating the degenerated cells and transplanting stem cells to the patients.
  1. Adult stem cells: Advantages: long history, treating blood cell cancer through transplantation. Disadvantages: less proliferative, requires high compatibility between donor and recipients, invasive collection procedures.   Embryonic stem cells: Advantages: plastic and versatile, pluripotent. Disadvantages: control of development has not been determined, ethical concerns about the use of embryos.
  1. The research helps us understand the control and process in transition from stem cells to specialized cells (A), how stem cells work (B) and how stem cells can be used in medicine and disease management (C). Therefore, the answer is (D), all of the above.