As you have already guessed from our earlier chapter discussions, people cannot be discriminated against when it comes to development of pay systems. One issue hotly debated is the issue of comparable worth. Comparable worth states that people should be given similar pay if they are performing the same type of job. Evidence over the years shows this isn’t the case, with women earning less than men in many industries. On average, a woman earns 79 cents for every $1.00 a man earns. For women of color, the gap is wider at 69 cents for African-American women and 59 cents for Latina women. 1 Many publications state that women earn less than men for a few reasons:
- Women work fewer hours because of family care and maternity leave.
- The career path or job choice of women tends to be lower as a whole.
- There is a bias favoring men as the “breadwinners,” and therefore they are paid more.
- Women are valued less than men in the workplace.
- Women don’t negotiate salaries as well as men do.
While the reasons are certainly debatable, there is evidence that young women (without children) entering the workforce actually earn more than their male counterparts, owing to higher levels of education. 2 As you may remember from Chapter 3 "Diversity and Multiculturalism", the EEOC covers discrimination in the workplace, including pay discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, and national origin. The Equal Pay Act of 1963 makes it illegal to pay different wages to men and women if they perform equal work in the same workplace.
More recent legislation on pay includes the Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act of 2009, the first law signed by President Obama. This bill amends the Civil Rights Act stating that the 180-day statute of limitations for filing an equal pay lawsuit regarding pay discrimination resets with each discriminatory paycheck. The bill stemmed from a lawsuit against Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company by Lilly Ledbetter, who claimed that her nineteen-year career at the company consisted of unfair pay, compared to male workers in the organization. Her complaint was time barred by the US Supreme Court, and the new act addressed the time (180 days) constraint in which people have to file claims.
The Fair Labor Standards Act, or FLSA, was established in 1938 and set a minimum wage for jobs, overtime laws, and child labor laws. FLSA divides workers into exempt and nonexempt status, and jobs under exempt status do not fall under the FLSA guidelines. An exempt employee is usually paid a salary and includes executive, professional, outside sales, and administrative positions. A nonexempt employee is usually an hourly employee. For nonexempt employees, some states may implement a higher minimum wage than that established by the federal government. For example, in 2011, the minimum wage is $8.67 per hour in Washington State, while the federal minimum wage is $7.25 per hour. Obviously, as an HR manager or manager, it is your responsibility to ensure everyone is being paid the minimum wage. This law also requires overtime pay if employees work over forty hours per week. Organizations must also post the FLSA poster in a visible part of the workplace, outlining these laws.
Child labor also falls under FLSA. The goal of these laws is to protect the education of children, prohibit the employment of children in dangerous jobs, and limit the number of working hours of children during the school year and other times of the year. 3
According to the FLSA, tipped employees are those earning $30 or more per month in tips, such as servers in a restaurant. Employers whose employees receive more than $30 in tips may consider tips as part of wages, but they also must pay $2.12 an hour in direct wages. They must also be able to show that the employee receives at least the applicable minimum wage. If the tips and direct wage do not meet the minimum wage, the employer must pay the difference.
Also relating to pay is the Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA). FUTA provides for payments of unemployment compensation to workers who have lost their jobs. Most employers pay a federal and a state unemployment tax, and portions of these funds go toward unemployment benefits should the worker lose his or her job. TheFederal Employees Compensation Act (FECA) provides federal employees injured in the performance of their jobs compensation benefits, such as disability. Please note that this is elective for private companies but required of federal agencies.
- A job evaluation system should be used to determine the relative value of one job to another. This is the first step in setting up a pay system.
- Several types of pay systems can be implemented. A pay grade system sets up specific pay levels for particular jobs, while a going rate system looks at the pay through the industry for a certain job title. Management fit gives maximum flexibility for managers to pay what they think someone should earn.
- HR managers can also develop pay systems based on skills and competency and utilize broadbanding, which is similar to pay grades. Another option might include variable pay.
- There are several motivational theories in regard to pay. First, the equity theorysays that people will evaluate their own satisfaction with their compensation by comparing it to others’ compensation. The expectancy theory says people will put in only as much work as they expect to receive in rewards. Finally, thereinforcement theory says if high performance is followed by a reward, high performance is likely to happen in the future.
- Other pay considerations include the size of the organization, whether the company is global, and the level of communication and employee involvement in compensation. HR managers should always be aware of what others are paying in the industry by performing market surveys.
- There are several laws pertaining to pay. Of course, the EEOC ensures that pay is fair for all and does not discriminate. FLSA sets a minimum wage and establishes standards for child labor. FUTA requires employers to pay unemployment taxes on employees. FECA ensures that federal employees receive certain benefits.
- Name and describe three considerations in developing a pay system. Which do you think is best?
- Which pay theory do you think is the most important when developing your pay system? Why?
- Visit http://www.dol.gov/dol/topic/wages/minimumwage.htm (please note that sometimes web address change so you may need to search for the information), which publishes minimum wage data for the United States. View the map and compare your state with the federal minimum wage. Is it higher or lower? Which two states have the highest minimum wage? The lowest?