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  1. "Born of a panic: Forming the Federal Reserve System". The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. August 1988.
  2. BoG 2006, pp. 1 "Just before the founding of the Federal Reserve, the nation was plagued with financial crises. At times, these crises led to 'panics,' in which people raced to their banks to withdraw their deposits. A particularly severe panic in 1907 resulted in bank runs that wreaked havoc on the fragile banking system and ultimately led Congress in 1913 to write the Federal Reserve Act. Initially created to address these banking panics, the Federal Reserve is now charged with a number of broader responsibilities, including fostering a sound banking system and a healthy economy."
  3. BoG 2005, pp. 1–2
  4. Panic of 1907: J.P. Morgan Saves the Day
  5. Born of a Panic: Forming the Fed System
  6. The Financial Panic of 1907: Running from History
  7. BoG 2005, pp. 1 "It was founded by Congress in 1913 to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system. Over the years, its role in banking and the economy has expanded."
  8. Patrick, Sue C. (1993). Reform of the Federal Reserve System in the Early 1930's: The Politics of Money and Banking. Garland. ISBN 978-0-8153-0970-3.
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  21. Fed Gives $77 Billion in Profits to Treasury Department Binyamin Appelbaum
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  23. Grubb, Farley (March 30, 2006). "Benjamin Franklin And the Birth of a Paper Money Economy" (PDF). Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia. Retrieved August 26, 2010.
  24. "Eventually, the paper money was received for taxes at the rate of £27 in bills of credit for £1 in silver, and destroyed.". Retrieved 2012-04-30.
  25. "The Currency Act of 1764". The Royal Colony of South Carolina. Retrieved January 3, 2012. "This act was not repealed prior to the American Revolution. It had very dire consequences for both North Carolina and South Carolina, both of whose economies were already shaky. The Currency Act was, therefore, a great hardship to trade within and without the colonies and, equally important, proof that the British government put the interests of mother country merchants ahead of theirs. ... The entire text of the Act is provided below." "...and whereas such bills of credit have greatly depreciated in their value, by means whereof debts have been discharged with a much less value than was contracted for, to the great discouragement and prejudice of the trade and commerce of his Majesty's act, order, resolution, or vote of assembly, in any of his Majesty's colonies or plantations in America, shall be made, for creating or issuing any paper bills, or bills of credit of any kind or denomination whatsoever, declaring such paper bills, or bills of credit, to be legal tender in payment of any bargains, contracts, debts, dues, or demands whatsoever; and every clause or provision which shall hereafter be inserted in any act, order, resolution, or vote of assembly, contrary to this act, shall be null and void."
  26. ""Mr. Govr. MORRIS moved to strike out "and emit bills on the credit of the U. States"-If the United States had credit such bills would be unnecessary: if they had not, unjust & useless. ... On the motion for striking out N. H. ay. Mas. ay. Ct ay. N. J. no. Pa. ay. Del. ay. Md. no. Va. ay. N. C. ay. S. C. ay. Geo. ay."". Retrieved 2012-04-30.
  27. US Constitution Article 1, Section 10. "no state shall ..emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts;"
  28. British Parliamentary reports on international finance: the Cunliffe Committee and the Macmillan Committee reports. Ayer Publishing. 1978. ISBN 978-0-405-11212-6. "description of the founding of Bank of England: 'Its foundation in 1694 arose out the difficulties of the Government of the day in securing subscriptions to State loans. Its primary purpose was to raise and lend money to the State and in consideration of this service it received under its Charter and various Act of Parliament, certain privileges of issuing bank notes. The corporation commenced, with an assured life of twelve years after which the Government had the right to annul its Charter on giving one year's notice. Subsequent extensions of this period coincided generally with the grant of additional loans to the State'"
  29. Johnson, Roger (December 1999). "Historical Beginnings... The Federal Reserve". Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. p. 8. Retrieved 2010-07-23.
  30. Herrick, Myron (March 1908). "The Panic of 1907 and Some of Its Lessons". Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
  31. Flaherty, Edward (June 16, 1997, updated August 24, 2001). "A Brief History of Central Banking in the United States". Netherlands: University of Groningen.
  32. Whithouse, Michael (May 1989). "Paul Warburg's Crusade to Establish a Central Bank in the United States". The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved 2011-08-29.
  33. "For years members of the Jekyll Island Club would recount the story of the secret meeting and by the 1930s the narrative was considered a club tradition.". Retrieved 2012-04-30.
  34. "Papers of Frank A.Vanderlip "I wish I could sit down with you and half a dozen others in the sort of conference that created the Federal Reserve Act"" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-04-30.
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  58. Federal Reserve System "Template:Citation error". Retrieved 2013-09-30. "The Board of Governors, the Federal Reserve Banks, and the Federal Reserve System as a whole are all subject to several levels of audit and review. Under the Federal Banking Agency Audit Act (enacted in 1978 as Public Law 95-320), which authorizes the Comptroller General of the United States to audit the Federal Reserve System, the Government Accountability Office (GAO) has conducted numerous reviews of Federal Reserve activities"[dead link]
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  60. "About The Audit". Audit the Fed Coalition. 2009. Retrieved 2011-08-29. Although the Fed is currently audited by outside agencies, these audits are not thorough and do not include monetary policy decisions or agreements with foreign central banks and governments. The crucial issue of Federal Reserve transparency requires an analysis of 31 USC 714, the section of U.S. Code which establishes that the Federal Reserve may be audited by the Government Accountability Office (GAO), but which simultaneously severely restricts what the GAO may in fact audit. Essentially, the GAO is only allowed to audit check-processing, currency storage and shipments, and some regulatory and bank examination functions, etc. The most important matters, which directly affect the strength of the dollar and the health of the financial system, are immune from oversight.
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  62. Reddy, Sudeep (2009-11-23). "Congress Grows Fed Up Despite Central Bank's Push". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2011-08-29.The Fed's ability to influence Congress is diluted by public anger. A July 2009 Gallup Poll found only 30% Americans thought the Fed was doing a good or excellent job, a rating even lower than that for the Internal Revenue Service, which drew praise from 40%.
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  135. "A dirty job, but someone has to do it". 2007-12-13. Retrieved 2011-08-29. "The Fed's discount window, for instance, through which it lends direct to banks, has barely been approached, despite the soaring spreads in the interbank market. The quarter-point cuts in its federal funds rate and discount rate on December 11 were followed by a steep sell-off in the stockmarket...The hope is that by extending the maturity of central-bank money, broadening the range of collateral against which banks can borrow and shifting from direct lending to an auction, the central bankers will bring down spreads in the one- and three-month money markets. There will be no net addition of liquidity. What the central bankers add at longer-term maturities, they will take out in the overnight market. But there are risks. The first is that, for all the fanfare, the central banks' plan will make little difference. After all, it does nothing to remove the fundamental reason why investors are worried about lending to banks. This is the uncertainty about potential losses from subprime mortgages and the products based on them, and—given that uncertainty—the banks' own desire to hoard capital against the chance that they will have to strengthen their balance sheets."
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