Many books and articles have been written on the topic of effective leadership. A definition of effective leadership varies among experts. Questionnaires, such as the Leadership Practices Inventory created by Kouzes and Posner (1995), have been used to measure leadership effectiveness. Kouzes and Pousner believe that effective leaders engage in five practices; model the way, inspire a shared vision, challenge the process, enable others to act, and encourage the heart (1995). These practices and other leadership concepts provide a means of shaping a model leader. Understanding that effective leaders will also hold individual leadership traits, defining the term in a general sense is a challenge. For the purpose of our chapter, we will define effective leadership as "the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations" (Kouzes & Posner, 1995, p. 30).
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