If the costs of the activities up to the present vary from the original estimates, this will affect the total estimate of the project cost. The new estimate of the project cost is the estimate
at completion (EAC). To calculate the EAC, the **esti****mate to complete (ETC)** is added to the actual cost (AC) of the activities already
performed. Expressed as a formula, EAC = AC + ETC.

## Example: Estimate at Completion for John’s Move

The revised estimate at completion (EAC) for John’s move at this point in the process is EAC = $154.50 + $1,371.90 = $1,526.40.

To summarize (Figure 12.8 Summary of Terms and Formulas for Earned Value Analysis ):

- Extra money is allocated in a contingency fund to deal with activities where costs exceed estimates. Funds are allocated in a management reserve in case a significant opportunity or challenge occurs that requires change of scope but funds are needed immediately before a scope change can typically be negotiated.
- Schedule variance is the difference between the part of the budget that has been spent so far (EV) versus the part that was planned to be spent by now (PV). Similarly, the cost variance is the difference between the EV and the actual cost (AC).
- The schedule performance index (SPI) is the ratio of the earned value and the planned value. The cost performance index (CPI) is the ratio of the earned value (EV) to the actual cost (AC).
- The formula used to calculate the amount of money needed to complete the project (ETC) depends on whether or not the cost variance to this point is expected to continue (typical) or not (atypical). If the cost variance is atypical, the ETC is simply the original total budget (BAC) minus the earned value (EV). If they are typical of future cost variances, the ETC is adjusted by dividing the difference between BAC and EV by the CPI.
- The final budget is the actual cost (AC) to this point plus the estimate to complete (ETC).

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