Designing and implementing the training systems requires the company to consider a number of things; the method of training, the material the training will deal with, who will provide the training, how to evaluate the effectiveness of the training, etc. (Fukami, Strategic Human Resources: Training, 2007). There are also a number of other items that can impact the training system, things like what the training program is called. Because of the negative view that training has had for so long, some organizations are shying away from the term training and replacing it with things such as “Learning & Development” in order to emphasize the importance of learning for the individual and the organization. In other organizations, the term “Human Resource Development” is used (Training and Development, 2007).
Two of the largest issues that a company faces with developing these training systems are: (1) what type of training to use, and (2) how to evaluate the effectiveness of the training. It is important that these training systems and evaluation procedures remain in-line with the culture and policies of the rest of the company. Below is a partial list of common training systems:
- Lectures: Similar to a school classroom, the session is lead by a “trainer/teacher” who covers a specific topic such as how to use a new computer program.
- Audio-visual media & computer-based training: With the advancement of technology, companies can invest in video, audio and computer based learning such as instructional tapes, recorded lectures or “podcasts”, or computer materials such as Flash presentations. The benefit of these methods is that they are relatively inexpensive and can be utilized by the employee at their discretion (Training and Development, 2007).
- On-the-job: a training method that relies on the employee to recognize the skills and knowledge he or she will need as they perform their work, and then develop those skills on his or her own.
- Technical training: specialized training that focuses on a specific need of specific employees. This typically applies to manufacturing based companies in relation to training their employees on the machinery and methods used.
- Mentoring & coaching: Mentoring systems pair a younger or less experienced employee with an individual that has experience and success within the company who can offer guidance, aid and insight to the younger/less experienced employees (Craumer, 2001). Coaching systems are slightly different. They involve the manager offering developmental assistance to the employee through observation, assessment, providing feedback, questioning, etc. (Kram, 1985)
- Outdoor programs: the use of physical and mental activities such as ropes courses or problem-solving tasks that encourage the use of team work.
After the training system has been developed and implemented, the effectiveness of the system needs to be evaluated, and there are multiple ways to do this. Common methods includes surveys given to the employees who have used the system, an ROI analysis and test at the end of the session (Fukami, Strategic Human Resources: Training, 2007).