Growth is also at risk if start-ups fail to develop strategic planning, marketing, financing, risk management, HR management, organization, or policies for internationalization. Growth mistakes made in regard to marketing, financing, and HR management are particularly serious. Many of the following issues have been introduced in previous chapters.
The first group of flawed growth strategies is marketing strategies. Start-ups are particularly susceptible to concentrating on developing a technical or scientific product further and developing new products, but not paying enough attention to marketing. Marketing plans and their extrapolation are a prerequisite for avoiding growth mistakes. If a firm does not conduct market research, identify customer preferences, generate new customer wishes, or segment or capture the market, it will not grow. Start-ups can only find out whether or not they can achieve or have already achieved a dominant position in the market by conducting systematic market research. If they already have a dominant position, they could try to push competitors out of the market or prevent them from entering it in the first place. Depending on the financial resources available, e.g. after a successful IPO, it could even make sense to buy out competitors and grow in this fashion.
A second group that can hinder growth is cooperation strategies, such as when a start-up becomes overly dependent on a more established company as a senior partner, for example, when a small biotech firm depends on a large pharmaceutical company to market its products. If larger established companies really commit themselves to their junior partners and are successful, then cooperation often ends up with the senior partner taking over the start-up. This only ensures the growth of the senior partner. Transferring licenses to larger firms before a product is fully developed is also dangerous—this is a particular problem for biotech start-ups if the government has not yet approved a new drug. However, what is much more common is opportunistic behavior by the senior partner, where it is paid well by the junior partner for its marketing activities, but then it does not in fact aggressively market the junior partner’s products. Such a flawed marketing strategy is also a huge hindrance to growth.
A third group of flawed growth strategies concerns the financing of growth. In the initial phases of the life cycle of start-ups, growth can scarcely be financed out of their profits, nor can it generally be financed alone by the founders’ equity. Start-ups in particular are often undercapitalized. The only alternative that remains is seeking outside capital.
To finance growth strategies start-ups sometimes borrow long-term debt which is to be paid back with interest from the revenues from implementing the strategy. Likewise, some start-ups redeem loans and interest payments step-by-step over a long period by taking out revolving, short-term loans. Both financial strategies jeopardize growth considerably, or even hinder it completely if the firm does not generate the planned revenues, or if no new short-term loans are available to pay off part of the long-term loan at the right time. In addition, start-ups with high growth potential in certain industries, can trade partial ownership in their firms for “venture capital”.
Start-ups can also make another growth mistake in financing by launching their IPOs on the stock market too soon and simply using this revenue to repay debt or venture capital and replace it with equity from the capital market. What is even more serious after an IPO is when firms make the growth mistake of merely increasing their cash management or randomly buying out other firms, rather than using their IPO funds to finance wise growth strategies.
The fourth group of related business strategies where serious mistakes can be made is Human Resource strategies. In many cases the founders and employees of start-ups are in their thirties, and sometimes only in their twenties, and are frequently highly qualified university or college graduates (cf. Frank/Opitz 2001, p. 454). The homogeneity of the age distribution of managers and employees often leads to start-ups acquiring new personnel from the same age group. However, a homogeneous age distribution may lead to a decline in motivation as employees age at the same time. Start-ups must therefore be particularly careful to achieve a heterogeneous age distribution in their personnel. They must also attempt to acquire older employees with experience in the industry and with management competences from other successful companies. It can be of great value to acquire more senior managers who enjoy the new challenge of working for a start-up before they retire. Lack of loyalty in their personnel should lead start-ups to think about how to retain their particularly talented employees. If start-ups fail to consider these points, obstacles to growth are a matter of course.
Much more important, however, is developing the knowledge and competences of the entire staff depending on the start-up’s chosen growth strategy. The knowledge and competences necessary for formulating and implementing the growth strategies must be forecast as part of qualitative Human Resource planning, and then provided by Human Resource development or by acquiring external personnel (cf. Drumm 2000). If this does not happen, start-ups face a growth barrier which is hard to overcome. The failure to implement strategy-oriented HR development and build up and maintain internalized motivation of the employees through attractive work and working conditions is a barrier to growth which is often overlooked.