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Roots: Support for the Plant

13 November, 2015 - 17:23

Roots are not well preserved in the fossil record; nevertheless, it seems that they did appear later in evolution than vascular tissue. The development of an extensive network of roots represented a significant new feature of vascular plants. Thin rhizoids attached the bryophytes to the substrate. Their rather flimsy filaments did not provide a strong anchor for the plant; neither did they absorb water and nutrients. In contrast, roots, with their prominent vascular tissue system, transfer water and minerals from the soil to the rest of the plant. The extensive network of roots that penetrates deep in the ground to reach sources of water also stabilizes trees by acting as ballast and an anchor. The majority of roots establish a symbiotic relationship with fungi, forming mycorrhizae. In the mycorrhizae, fungal hyphae grow around the root and within the root around the cells, and in some instances within the cells. This benefits the plant by greatly increasing the surface area for absorption.