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The Heart

6 April, 2016 - 17:26

The heart is a complex muscle that consists of two pumps: one that pumps blood through pulmonary circulation to the lungs, and the other that pumps blood through systemic circulation to the rest of the body’s tissues (and the heart itself).

The heart is asymmetrical, with the left side being larger than the right side, correlating with the different sizes of the pulmonary and systemic circuits (Figure 16.10). In humans, the heart is about the size of a clenched fist; it is divided into four chambers: two atria and two ventricles. There is one atrium and one ventricle on the right side and one atrium and one ventricle on the left side. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation through the major veins: the superior vena cava, which drains blood from the head and from the veins that come from the arms, as well as the inferior vena cava, which drains blood from the veins that come from the lower organs and the legs. This deoxygenated blood then passes to the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve, which prevents the backflow of blood. After it is filled, the right ventricle contracts, pumping the blood to the lungs for reoxygenation. The left atrium receives the oxygen-rich blood from the lungs. This blood passes through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle where the blood is pumped into the aorta. The aorta is the major artery of the body, taking oxygenated blood to the organs and muscles of the body. This pattern of pumping is referred to as double circulation and is found in all mammals. (Figure 16.10).


Figure 16.10 The heart is divided into four chambers, two atria, and two ventricles. Each chamber is separated by one-way valves. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the body and pumps it to the lungs. The left side of the heart pumps blood to the rest of the body.
Which of the following statements about the circulatory system is false?

a. Blood in the pulmonary vein is deoxygenated.

b. Blood in the inferior vena cava is deoxygenated.

c. Blood in the pulmonary artery is deoxygenated.

d. Blood in the aorta is oxygenated.