- Figure 9.10 Ligase, as this enzyme joins together Okazaki fragments.
- The DNA is wound around proteins called histones. The histones then stack together in a compact form that creates a fiber that is 30-nm thick. The fiber is further coiled for greater compactness. During metaphase of mitosis, the chromosome is at its most compact to facilitate chromosome movement. During interphase, there are denser areas of chromatin, called heterochromatin, that contain DNA that is not expressed, and less dense euchromatin that contains DNA that is expressed.
- A single strand of DNA is a polymer of nucleic acids joined covalently between the phosphate group of one and the deoxyribose sugar of the next to for a “backbone” from which the nitrogenous bases stick out. In its natural state, DNA has two strands wound around each other in a double helix. The bases on each strand are bonded to each other with hydrogen bonds. Only specific bases bond with each other; adenine bonds with thymine, and cytosine bonds with guanine.
- Telomerase has an inbuilt RNA template that extends the 3' end, so a primer is synthesized and extended. Thus, the ends are protected.
- The mRNA would be: 5'-AUGGCCGGUUAUUAAGCA-3'. The protein would be: MAGY. Even though there are six codons, the fifth codon corresponds to a stop, so the sixth codon would not be translated.
- The cell controls which protein is expressed, and to what level that protein is expressed, in the cell. Prokaryotic cells alter the transcription rate to turn genes on or off. This method will increase or decrease protein levels in response to what is needed by the cell. Eukaryotic cells change the accessibility (epigenetic), transcription, or translation of a gene. This will alter the amount of RNA, and the lifespan of the RNA, to alter the amount of protein that exists. Eukaryotic cells also change the protein’s translation to increase or decrease its overall levels. Eukaryotic organisms are much more complex and can manipulate protein levels by changing many stages in the process.
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