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Chapter 7

16 November, 2015 - 11:43
  1. Figure 7.2 Yes, it will be able to reproduce asexually.
  2. C
  3. D
  4. B
  5. C
  6. D
  7. C
  8. B
  9. A
  10. D
  11. B
  12. The offspring of sexually reproducing organisms are all genetically unique. Because of this, sexually reproducing organisms may have more successful survival of offspring in environments that change than asexually reproducing organisms, whose offspring are all genetically identical. In addition, the rate of adaptation of sexually reproducing organisms is higher, because of their increased variation. This may allow sexually reproducing organisms to adapt more quickly to competitors and parasites, who are evolving new ways to exploit or outcompete them.
  13. The two events common to all sexually reproducing organisms are meiosis and fertilization. Meiosis reduces a diploid cell to a haploid state. The haploid cell may divide mitotically to produce an organism, some of whose cells will combine during fertilization, or the haploid cells produced by meiosis may immediately combine in fertilization to produce a diploid cell that divides to produce an organism.
  14. Random alignment leads to new combinations of traits. The chromosomes that were originally inherited by the gamete-producing individual came equally from the egg and the sperm. In metaphase I, the duplicated copies of these maternal and paternal homologous chromosomes line up across the center of the cell to form a tetrad. The orientation of each tetrad is random. There is an equal chance that the maternally derived chromosomes will be facing either pole. The same is true of the paternally derived chromosomes. The alignment should occur differently in almost every meiosis. As the homologous chromosomes are pulled apart in anaphase I, any combination of maternal and paternal chromosomes will move toward each pole. The gametes formed from these two groups of chromosomes will have a mixture of traits from the individual’s parents. Each gamete is unique.
  15. The two divisions are similar in that the chromosomes line up along the metaphase plate individually, meaning unpaired with other chromosomes (as in meiosis I). In addition, each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids that will be pulled apart. The two divisions are different because in meiosis II there are half the number of chromosomes that are present in a diploid cell of the same species undergoing mitosis. This is because meiosis I reduced the number of chromosomes to a haploid state.
  16. The problems caused by trisomies arise because the genes on the chromosome that is present in three copies produce more product than genes on chromosomes with only two copies. The cell does not have a way to adjust the amount of product, and the lack of balance causes problems in development and the maintenance of the individual. Each chromosome is different, and the differences in survivability could have to do with the numbers of genes on the two chromosomes. Chromosome 21 may be a smaller chromosome, so there are fewer unbalanced gene products. It is also possible that chromosome 21 carries genes whose products are less sensitive to differences in dosage than chromosome 18. The genes may be less involved in critical pathways, or the differences in dosage may make less of a difference to those pathways.