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How Neurons Communicate

18 November, 2015 - 12:37

All functions performed by the nervous system—from a simple motor reflex to more advanced functions like making a memory or a decision—require neurons to communicate with one another. Neurons communicate between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites, and sometimes the cell body, of another neuron across the gap between them, known as the synaptic cleft. When an action potential reaches the end of an axon it stimulates the release of neurotransmitter molecules into the synaptic cleft between the synaptic knob of the axon and the post-synaptic membrane of the dendrite or soma of the next cell. The neurotransmitter is released through exocytosis of vesicles containing the neurotransmitter molecules. The neurotransmitter diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to receptors in the post- synaptic membrane. These receptor molecules are chemically regulated ion channels and will open, allowing sodium to enter the cell. If sufficient neurotransmitter has been released an action potential may be initiated in the next cell, but this is not guaranteed. If insufficient neurotransmitter is released the nerve signal will die at this point. There are a number of different neurotransmitters that are specific to neuron types that have specific functions.