The combined gradient that affects an ion includes its concentration gradient and its electrical gradient. Living cells need certain substances in concentrations greater than they exist in the extracellular space. Moving substances up their electrochemical gradients requires energy from the cell. Active transport uses energy stored in ATP to fuel the transport. Active transport of small molecular-size material uses integral proteins in the cell membrane to move the material—these proteins are analogous to pumps. Some pumps, which carry out primary active transport, couple directly with ATP to drive their action. In secondary transport, energy from primary transport can be used to move another substance into the cell and up its concentration gradient.
Endocytosis methods require the direct use of ATP to fuel the transport of large particles such as macromolecules; parts of cells or whole cells can be engulfed by other cells in a process called phagocytosis. In phagocytosis, a portion of the membrane invaginates and flows around the particle, eventually pinching off and leaving the particle wholly enclosed by an envelope of plasma membrane. Vacuoles are broken down by the cell, with the particles used as food or dispatched in some other way. Pinocytosis is a similar process on a smaller scale. The cell expels waste and other particles through the reverse process, exocytosis. Wastes are moved outside the cell, pushing a membranous vesicle to the plasma membrane, allowing the vesicle to fuse with the membrane and incorporating itself into the membrane structure, releasing its contents to the exterior of the cell.