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Chapter 2

17 November, 2015 - 14:03
  1. Figure 2.3 Potassium-39 has twenty neutrons. Potassium-40 has twenty one neutrons.
  2. A
  3. A
  4. A
  5. D
  6. C
  7. C
  8. D
  9. D
  10. A
  11. C
  12. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions form weak associations between different molecules. They provide the structure and shape necessary for proteins and DNA within cells so that they function properly. Hydrogen bonds also give water its unique properties, which are necessary for life.
  13. Some insects can walk on water, although they are heavier (denser) than water, because of the surface tension of water. Surface tension results from cohesion, or the attraction between water molecules at the surface of the body of water [the liquid-air (gas) interface].
  14. Water molecules are polar, meaning they have separated partial positive and negative charges. Because of these charges, water molecules are able to surround charged particles created when a substance dissociates. The surrounding layer of water molecules stabilizes the ion and keeps differently charged ions from reassociating, so the substance stays dissolved.
  15. Fat serves as a valuable way for animals to store energy. It can also provide insulation. Phospholipids and steroids are important components of cell membranes.
  16. A change in gene sequence can lead to a different amino acid being added to a polypeptide chain instead of the normal one. This causes a change in protein structure and function. For example, in sickle cell anemia, the hemoglobin β chain has a single amino acid substitution. Because of this change, the disc-shaped red blood cells assume a crescent shape, which can result in serious health problems.