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Chapter 16

30 November, 2015 - 14:23
  1. Figure 16.2Pyrogens increase body temperature by causing the blood vessels to constrict, inducing shivering, and stopping sweat glands from secreting fluid.
  2. Figure 16.7 B
  3. Figure 16.9 B
  4. Figure 16.10 A
  5. Figure 16.14 A
  6. C
  7. C
  8. B
  9. C
  10. C
  11. A
  12. A
  13. B
  14. C
  15. A
  16. A
  17. C
  18. A
  19. C
  20. A
  21. A
  22. B
  23. D
  24. C
  25. C
  26. A
  27. The body has a sensor that detects a deviation of the state of the cells or the body from the set point. The information is relayed to a control center, usually the brain, where signals go to effectors. Those effectors cause a negative feedback response that moves the state of the body in a direction back toward the set point.
  28. Excretion allows an organism to rid itself of waste molecules that could be toxic if allowed to accumulate. It also allows the organism to keep the amount of water and dissolved solutes in balance.
  29. Accessory organs play an important role in producing and delivering digestive juices to the intestine during digestion and absorption. Specifically, the salivary glands, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder play important roles. Malfunction of any of these organs can lead to disease states.
  30. Minerals—such as potassium, sodium, and calcium—are required for the functioning of many cellular processes. While minerals are required in trace amounts, not having minerals in the diet can be potentially harmful.
  31. In the United States, obesity, particularly childhood obesity, is a growing concern. Some of the contributors to this situation include sedentary lifestyles and consuming more processed foods and less fruits and vegetables. As a result, even young children who are obese can face health concerns.
  32. The main bronchus is the conduit in the lung that funnels air to the airways where gas exchange occurs. The main bronchus attaches the lungs to the very end of the trachea where it bifurcates. The trachea is the cartilaginous structure that extends from the pharynx to the lungs. It serves to funnel air to the lungs. The alveoli are the site of gas exchange; they are located at the terminal regions of the lung and are attached to the alveolar sacs, which come from the alveolar ducts and respiratory bronchioles terminal bronchi.
  33. The sac-like structure of the alveoli increases their surface area. In addition, the alveoli are made of thin-walled cells. These features allows gases to easily diffuse across the cells.
  34. The heart receives an electrical signal triggering the cardiac muscle cells in the atria to contract. The signal pauses before passing onto the ventricles so the blood is pumped through the body. This is the systolic phase. The heart then relaxes in diastole and fills again with blood.
  35. The cells of both exocrine and endocrine glands produce a product that will be secreted by the gland. An exocrine gland has a duct and secretes its product to the outside of the gland, not into the bloodstream. An endocrine gland secretes its product into the bloodstream and does not use a duct.
  36. The number of receptors that respond to a hormone can change, resulting in increased or decreased cell sensitivity. The number of receptors can increase in response to rising hormone levels, called up-regulation, making the cell more sensitive to the hormone and allowing for more cellular activity. The number of receptors can also decrease in response to rising hormone levels, called down-regulation, leading to reduced cellular activity.
  37. Blood-glucose levels are regulated by hormones produced by the pancreas: insulin and glucagon. When blood-glucose levels are increasing, the pancreas releases insulin, which stimulates uptake of glucose by cells. When blood-glucose levels are decreasing, the pancreas releases glucagon, which stimulates the release of stored glucose by the liver to the bloodstream.
  38. The hip joint is flexed and the knees are extended.
  39. Neurons contain organelles common to all cells, such as a nucleus and mitochondria. They are unique because they contain dendrites, which can receive signals from other neurons, and axons that can send these signals to other cells.
  40. The spinal cord transmits sensory information from the body to the brain and motor commands from the brain to the body through its connections with peripheral nerves. It also controls motor reflexes.
  41. The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body for “fight or flight,” whereas the parasympathetic nervous system allows the body to “rest and digest.” Sympathetic neurons release norepinephrine onto target organs; parasympathetic neurons release acetylcholine. Sympathetic neuron cell bodies are located in sympathetic ganglia. Parasympathetic neuron cell bodies are located in the brainstem and sacral spinal cord. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate and blood pressure and decreases digestion and blood flow to the skin. Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system decreases heart rate and blood pressure and increases digestion and blood flow to the skin.
  42. The sensory-somatic nervous system transmits sensory information from the skin, muscles, and sensory organs to the CNS. It also sends motor commands from the CNS to the muscles, causing them to contract.