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23 November, 2015 - 09:47
Amoebozoa the eukaryotic  supergroup that contains the amoebas and slime molds
Archaeplastida the eukaryotic supergroup that contains land plants, green algae, and red algae
Ascomycota (sac fungi) a division  of fungi that store spores in a sac called ascus
anaerobic refers to organisms that grow without oxygen
anoxic without oxygen
Black Death a devastating  pandemic that is believed to have been an outbreak of bubonic plague caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis
basidiomycota (club fungi) a division  of fungi that produce club shaped structures, basidia, which contain spores
biofilm a microbial community that is held together by a gummy-textured  matrix
bioremediation benefits while the other member is not affected the use of microbial metabolism to remove pollutants
botulism  a disease produce  by the toxin of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium  botulinum
Chromalveolata the eukaryotic  supergroup that contains the dinoflagellates, ciliates, the brown algae, diatoms, and water molds
Chytridiomycota (chytrids)  a primitive division of fungi that live in water and produce gametes with flagella
capsule an external structure that enables a prokaryote  to attach to surfaces and protects it from dehydration
commensalism a symbiotic  relationship in which one member
conjugation the process by which prokaryotes move DNA from one individual to another using a pilus
cyanobacteria bacteria that evolved from early phototrophs and oxygenated the atmosphere; also known  as blue-green algae
Deuteromycota (imperfect fungi) a division  of fungi that do not have a known sexual reproductive cycle
Excavata the eukaryotic supergroup that contains flagellated single-celled organisms with a feeding groove
endosymbiosis the engulfment of one cell by another such that the engulfed cell survives and both cells benefit; the process responsible  for the evolution of mitochondria and chloroplasts in eukaryotes
epidemic a disease that occurs in an unusually high number of individuals in a population  at the same time
extremophile an organism that grows under extreme or harsh conditions
foodborne disease any illness resulting from the consumption of contaminated food, or of the pathogenic bacteria, viruses, or other parasites that contaminate food
Glomeromycota a group of fungi that form symbiotic relationships with the roots of trees
Gram-negative describes a bacterium whose cell wall contains little peptidoglycan  but has an outer membrane
Gram-positive describes a bacterium that contains mainly  peptidoglycan  in its cell walls
hydrothermal vent a fissure in Earth’s surface that releases geothermally  heated water
hypha a fungal filament  composed of one or more cells
lichen the close association of a fungus  with a photosynthetic  alga or bacterium that benefits both partners
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) a very dangerous Staphylococcus aureus strain resistant to antibiotics
microbial mat a multi-layered  sheet of prokaryotes that may include bacteria and archaea
mold a tangle of visible mycelia with a fuzzy appearance
mycelium a mass of fungal hyphae
mycorrhiza a mutualistic  association between fungi and vascular plant roots
mycosis a fungal infection
Opisthokonta the eukaryotic supergroup that contains the fungi, animals, and choanoflagellates
pandemic a widespread, usually worldwide,  epidemic disease
parasite an organism that lives on or in another organism and feeds on it, often without killing it
pathogen an organism, or infectious agent, that causes a disease
pellicle an outer cell covering composed of interlocking protein strips that function like a flexible coat of armor, preventing cells from being torn or pierced without compromising their range of motion
peptidoglycan  a material composed of polysaccharide chains cross-linked to unusual peptides
phototroph an organism  that uses energy from sunlight
plastid  one of a group of related organelles in plant cells that are involved in the storage of starches, fats, proteins, and pigments
pseudopeptidoglycan  a component  of some cell walls of Archaea
Rhizaria  the eukaryotic supergroup that contains organisms that move by amoeboid movement
saprobe  an organism that feeds on dead organic material
septum  the cell wall division between hyphae
stromatolite  a layered sedimentary structure formed by precipitation of minerals by prokaryotes in microbial mats
thallus  a vegetative body of a fungus
transduction the process by which a bacteriophage moves DNA from one prokaryote to another
transformation a mechanism   of genetic  change in prokaryotes in which DNA present  in the environment is taken into the cell and incorporated into the genome
yeast a general term used to describe unicellular fungi
Zygomycota  (conjugated fungi) the division of fungi that form a zygote contained in a zygospore